Knowledge Transfer Glossary of Terms
Active Spin-out - An Active Spin-out is an RPO-created spin-out company that is at least three years’ post-formation and has at least one paid employee and has raised equity and/or has booked sales revenue. It is an incorporated entity which at the time of formation was dependent on the exploitation of specific intellectual property rights of the RPO. The RPO will have executed a licence to the spin-out for the IPR and/or will hold equity in the spin-out.
Assignment - Contract transferring ownership of right in IP to a third party.
Collaborative research - A research project/programme between an industry party and an RPO. The project/programme may be:- wholly-funded by the industry party or; part-funded by the industry party (in cash and/or in kind, including participation in the research itself) and part-funded by the State or other external sources. Collaborative research may involve two or more parties. Characteristics of collaborative research with industry: The purpose of collaborative research is the generation of new knowledge. Typically, there will be an expectation of publication although the project may be governed by aspects of confidentiality. Intellectual property may be created and how the company benefits will be determined in the collaboration agreement and will depend on the contribution to the project made by the company. (Excludes contract services, consultancy, innovation vouchers, academic collaborations and research grants).
Consultancy services - RPO provides professional-level work to an external client organisation through an academic, researcher or other member of RPO staff in exchange for a commercial fee. The work is specified (or agreed) by the client against deliverables agreed with the RPO. May include Consultancy agreements, “Contract services” agreements and projects contracted under a work order. Characteristics of consultancy services: The purpose of consultancy is not typically the generation of new knowledge, rather it draws on existing knowledge. There will usually be no expectation of publication, results will be confidential and will be transferred to the client. The type of work might typically involve one or more of the following: advice; analysis; production of a report. Projects will generally be of a short term. (Excludes collaborative research, research grants, Academic collaboration, Training and provision of Continuing Professional Development (CPD)).
DETE - The Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment is a department of the government of Ireland. It leads on the creation and maintenance of high quality and sustainable full employment across all regions of the country by championing enterprise across government, by supporting a competitive enterprise base to incentivise work, enterprise, trade and investment and by promoting fair and competitive markets.
EI - Enterprise Ireland is the government organisation responsible for the development and growth of Irish enterprises in world markets. It supports companies to grow, innovate and export.
Equity - Shareholding in a legal entity.
ERC - The European Research Council provides competitive funding for high quality, investigator-led science and engineering research conducted within the European Union.
FTE - Full Time Equivalents - People working part-time are only included for the fraction that they are employed.
HEA - The Higher Education Authority leads the strategic development of the Irish higher education and research system. It has a statutory responsibility, at central government level, for the effective governance and regulation of higher education institutions and the higher education system.
HEI - Higher Education Institution, namely: universities, institutes of technology and other colleges.
IAB - KTI Industry Advisory Board (representatives from industry, investors and DBEI)
IDA - IDA Ireland is Ireland's inward investment promotion agency. A non-commercial, semi-state body, the IDA promotes foreign direct investment into Ireland through a wide range of services.
ILO - Industry Liaison Office is a name often applied to the team at an institute of technology responsible for managing knowledge transfer or technology transfer services including intellectual property, licensing, partnering with industry and the creation of new companies.
Incubator - A dedicated facility on the RPO campus in which early stage companies are housed and supported (pre-and post-formation). The facility may offer desk space, laboratory space or a mix of both
Innovation Vouchers - Innovation Vouchers worth €5,000 are available to assist a company or companies to explore a business opportunity or problem with a registered knowledge provider (i.e. higher education institutes, public research bodies).
Invention disclosure - The invention disclosure is the first actual recording of potential new intellectual property (IP). The researcher/inventor and TTO/ILO will complete an Invention Disclosure Form (IDF) which is a written, signed and dated record. The IDF contains basic information, including supporting data, which helps to evaluate and subsequently, potentially, protect and commercialise the intellectual property. For avoidance of doubt, the IP may be software.
IP - Intellectual Property – specific rights, whether registrable or not, which may include for example: patents, trademarks, service marks, registered designs, drawings, utility models, design rights, business ideas, concepts, inventions, discoveries, breeders rights, copyright (including the copyright in software in any code), database rights, know-how, trade secrets and other confidential information, technology, business or trade names and goodwill.
IRC - The Irish Research Council is an associated agency of the Department of Education and Skills. It funds research, education and skills development across all disciplines.
IUA - Irish Universities Association is the Irish universities representation, support and advocacy organisation for matters of shared sector concern.
Joint invention/Software Disclosure - Simultaneous reporting of an Invention Disclosure for the same invention or software to more than one RPO that has been created jointly by more than one RPO via the TTO/ILO
KT - Knowledge Transfer – the sharing of expertise, capability, technology and intellectual property between the research base and industry or the public sector with the aim of developing new or improved products, processes and services that deliver societal and economic benefit. May sometimes be referred to as KTT or TT.
KTI - Knowledge Transfer Ireland is the national office that helps business to benefit from access to Irish expertise and technology by making it simple to connect and engage with the research base in Ireland.
KTSF - Knowledge Transfer Stakeholder Forum - convened by KTI with representatives from the main research and innovation agencies, HEIs, IUA, THEA and DBEI.
KTT - Knowledge and Technology Transfer. May also be referred to as KT or TT.
Large company - A company which is based in one country only and which has more than 250 employees and has either an annual turnover greater than €50m or an annual Balance Sheet total greater than €43m.
Licence - Contract transferring intellectual property rights for the purpose of commercialisation in accordance with contractual terms and conditions.
LOA - A contract under which IP results are transferred, or agreed to be transferred, from one party to the other for the purpose of commercialisation.
MNC - A multi-national corporation that has its facilities and other assets in at least one country other than its home country. Such companies have offices and/ or factories in different countries and usually have a centralised head office where they co-ordinate global management.
Non-commercial entity (NCE) - Public sector organisation or charity.
Option - A contract under which a potential licensee is granted a period of exclusivity during which it can decide whether it may wish to take a licence to the intellectual property and negotiate the terms of a licence agreement. The option period may include evaluation of the IP by the potential licensee (including assessing the technology). This is may be called an Option & Evaluation Agreement.
PCT - Patent Cooperation Treaty – the treaty that makes it possible to seek patent protection for an invention simultaneously in each of a large number of countries by filing an “international” patent application.
Priority filing - The first filing of a patent application which will establish a priority date from which all national patents will derive. Depending on patent strategy, the priority filing may be made as a provisional application or national patent application or regional or international (PCT) patent application.
R&D Agreements - Research Collaboration Agreements (wholly and part-funded) plus Innovation Vouchers.
R&D&C Agreements - Research Collaboration Agreements (wholly and part-funded), Innovation Vouchers and Consultancy Agreements.
Reference year - The twelve-month reporting period from January 1st to December 31st.
Research Expenditure - This represents the total expenditures on all types of basic and applied research in Irish RPOs from all funding sources: government, industry, non-profit foundations, etc. It excludes any academic costs dedicated to research, costs of administrative support and capital expenditures on new equipment, buildings or land.
Research grant - An academic grant not involving industry. An award to an RPO by a research funding agency (e.g. government agency, charity) to perform a programme of research with the intention of disseminating the research results and in which an industry party is not involved. Typical research funders may include: SFI, ERC, Welcome Trust etc.
RPO - Research Performing Organisations - universities, institutes of technology and other publicly funded research institutions primarily publicly funded.
SFI - Science Foundation Ireland funds oriented basic and applied research in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics.
SME - Small to Medium Sized Enterprise – company with up to 249 employees that has either an annual turnover not exceeding €50 million or an annual balance sheet total not exceeding €43 million.
Spin-out - A spin-out company is an incorporated entity which at the time of formation was dependent on the exploitation of specific intellectual property rights of the RPO. The rights to the company can be linked to a specific researcher who was within the RPO at the time of company formation and who would be considered an academic founder. The RPO will hold equity in the spin-out and/or has issued the company with a licence to the IP.
Start-up - Company formed by staff or students from the RPO not based on knowledge or IP generated by the RPO and where there is no formal IP licence or equity share with the RPO.
THEA - The Technological Higher Education Association is the advocacy and representative body of the third level institutes of technology in Ireland.
TT - Technology Transfer. May sometimes be referred to as KT or KTT.
TTO - Technology Transfer Office is the name often applied to the team at a university or institute of technology responsible for managing knowledge transfer or technology transfer services including intellectual property, licensing, partnering with industry and the creation of new companies generally known as spin-out companies.
TTSI - The Technology Transfer Strengthening Initiative is an Enterprise Ireland funding programme that serves to bolster the capacity and capability within the knowledge transfer system in Ireland. TTSI funding is allocated across eight consortia of TTOs, comprising of 26 research performing organisations that include universities, institutes of technology and state research bodies. The programme is managed and administered by Knowledge Transfer Ireland (KTI).